Magnetic coupling of the solar photosphere and chromosphere


The solar surface outside sunspots and active regions, i.e., the quiet Sun, shows the ubiquitous pattern of granulation in the photosphere. The quiet solar photosphere harbors small-scale magnetic structures inside and between granules. This thesis presents thermodynamic properties of the small-scale magnetic flux concentrations in the quiet Sun using high spatial and temporal resolution observations along with numerical simulations. Spectral line profiles of the Fe I 630 nm pair and Ca II H were used to trace the photospheric and chromospheric layers of the magnetic elements. In the presence of magnetic field spectral lines split and are polarized via the Zeeman effect. The difference of a spectral line profile, measured in left and right circular polarized light, is a Stokes-V profile with two lobes. In the absence of any gradients of velocity or magnetic field along the line of sight, Stokes-V profiles are anti-symmetric. The different area of the two lobes, the Stokes-V area asymmetry, provides information about the gradients of the magnetic and velocity fields along the line of sight. Comparing high resolution spectropolarimetric data with synthetic maps of a 3D MHD simulation, we found several magnetic elements in the photosphere showing a central region of negative Stokes-V area asymmetry surrounded by a peripheral region with larger positive asymmetry ...
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